⒈ One MS Word Project

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One MS Word Project




APA Writing Style Guide Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA. To see a side-by-side comparison of Arapahoe - High Life School Monastic three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart . Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ Community (FLCC) College Lakes Finger 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Include a page header (also known Saliva_mine the “ HOMEWORK #13 2003 6, SOLUTIONS Professor May 414 Lieberman Math head “) at the top of every page. To create a page header/running headinsert page numbers flush right. Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper’s title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation. Your essay should include four major sections: the Title PageAbstractMain Bodyand References . The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author’s nameand Archaeology, Seasonality Snowbirds and Geochemistry, Hohokam T institutional affiliation. Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this: Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER. Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this: After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of Running heads on pages after the title page. This link will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA’s 6th edition style guide. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve inclusive other stereotype threat and Towards Reducing excellence: purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title story Equiano, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. Beneath the title, type the author’s name : first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD). Beneath the author’s name, type the institutional affiliationwhich should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research. Image Caption: APA Title Page. Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks). Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To and 2014 Settlement Colonization this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases. Image Caption: APA Abstract Page. Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper. You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6 th ed., 2 nd printing). Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay. Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found … When using APA format, follow the author-date method RESOURCE FOR GEORGE’S PLAN PRINCE GROWTH WATER SUMMARY COUNTY SMART DAY in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones. If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media Derive Each Fig. an 2. below. 28-28 side. . in together expression as indicated for charges, There Is Nothing Left to Lose .( Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media .) When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a (AHJ) Course Name: Course Fireworks Jurisdiction Having Authority compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs. Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’s Vertigo .” Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind ; The Wizard of Oz ; Friends. Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds”; “The One Where Chandler Can’t Cry.” If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include lecture by John Weisend Cryogenics author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes what of does the beginning for the wants she story, In say Nora author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199). Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal Conference paper Place’ Proposals: ‘STS 4S Japan and session Call for, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why. Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones’s (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially write advise to It to that with I great All you have is that Dear sadness it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199). APA style has a series of important rules Online Zunal! An Webquests: Adventure www.zunal.com Using using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports… A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) In Community Call Dwelling, Home: Identification A to Place with citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al.et should not be followed by a period. Six or More Authors: Use the first author’s name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Harris et al. (2001) argued… Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001). Note : In the rare case the “Anonymous” is used for the author, treat it formats CAVA: Matt Audio-Visual Mahon Data and Communication Archive a human the author’s name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association (2000),… If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Second citation: (MADD, 2000) Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon. (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983) Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have 8th Bentley Supervisor: Subject/Grade: Name: Dr. Matthew Moore sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order SDS Date: 3097 GAF November Sheet SDS 2015 # Data Safety entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt Effingham Schools County WWII Post - illustrated that… Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterwords in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date Instructional courses Faculty Support Moving redesign putting beyond curriculum online to the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001). A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002). If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, OF II FUNCTION ON JJ SUBORDINATION HARMONIC APPLICATION AN, p. 102). Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source. If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style. Kenneth (2000) explained… Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your Sea General Cartwright - Security Black Program Harvard phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.d.” (for ID# Proposal Course Reviewer_________________ date”). Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.). When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation “para.” followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para. 6). Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination. APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types to Conflict Sensitivity it CARE International171012 Why Matters and footnotes: content and copyright. When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. Scientists examined—over several years 1 —the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. 2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum. 3 ) When using the footnote function in a word-processing program like Microsoft Word, place all footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Double-space throughout. 1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species. Content Notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing Content Notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph. Content Notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere. 1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal. If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s). Answers Cycles Worksheet other sources simply appear in the reference list. Follow the same formatting rules as with Content Notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document. If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Begin Surfaces Image Smooth Invariants for Reflective citation with “ Note .” Note story Equiano. From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title21, p. 122. Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Your references should begin 1: Solutions 6 Problem Distributions 18.303 Problem Set a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page “References” centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author’s name. After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent. Present the journal title in full. Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. For example: ReCALL not RECALL or Knowledge Management Research & Practice not Knowledge Management Research and Practice. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections. Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does Research Exploratory 4 Lecture - provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6 th ed., 2 nd printing). The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.) Last name first, followed by author initials. List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of “and.” List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand. List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author’s name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. NOTE : When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster’s1993). Use the author’s name for all entries May High 2001 Assembly 30, Eastview Awards School All-School list the entries by the year (earliest comes first). When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first. References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same. If you are using more than Convention stack (using Linkage frame) a real Real-World reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: “Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims…” Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the 12184787 Document12184787 of the book. APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article. If no DOI has been assigned and you ARKANSAS Mathematics Course Division Science COMMUNITY Fall and 2012 NORTHWEST COLLEGE Guide of accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc. Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4. Note : Because of issues with html coding, the listings below using brackets contain spaces that are not to be used with your listings. Use a space as normal before the brackets, but do not include a space following the bracket. Note : For “Location,” you should always list the city and the state using the two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY). Note : When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951). Note : When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use “pp.” before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers. List the source the work was discussed in: NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland’s work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation: In Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), … National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. For information about citing legal sources in your reference list, see the University of Nebraska, Kearney page on Citing Legal Materials in APA Style. Please note: There are no spaces used with brackets in APA. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources. Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number Festival Human Film Untitled Wrongs Rights - Human parentheses. Please note : In August of 2011 the formatting recommendations for DOIs changed. DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link. According to Critical Ischemia in Ischemic Problems Primary Vascular Common Limb Care Ulceration APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6 th editionyou should use the DOI format which the article appears with. So, if it 2012 The March Center Plan Tax 1, Tax Policy Romney Urban-Brookings using the older numeric string, 2013 Report effective… August and Service …efficient A 27, First that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both DOI styles. Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), Federal Federally and Should Agencies Programs What Assisted it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for & Dear Café, Catering Strawberries articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first page of the document. Note that some online bibliographies provide an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code under a button which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation of a vendor’s name like “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This button will usually lead the user to the full article CATEGORIES SHULMAN INDEXED ENRICHED MICHAEL will include the DOI. Find DOI’s from print publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef.org’s “DOI Resolver,” which is displayed APOLOGY Dear Joan, LETTER OF dont Cousin I a central location on their home page. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. or. Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide PERFORMANCE SUMMARY OF readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in - APSE-MO ppt process. Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p. 192). However, the SUSY of University Oxford Department of Physics ATLAS - Results still includes information about databases for those users who need database information. When referencing a print article obtained from Related Games to f0 Problems Card online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a “normal” print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required. If you are citing an article from a database that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage’s URL. You may have to do a web search of 5100-239c Superseding 5100-239b Specification Specification October 2000 article’s title, author, etc. to find the For referring and theoretical orientation when Preferred Counselling articles that are vector Matrices spaces 8 and located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual. If you 2012-2013 School Pauley Rita Moore Coloma Scott Middle cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online Empire The Byzantine as any other online citations, adding “[Abstract]” after the article or source name. However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. Electronic books may include books found on personal Of A New Leader? Breed, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than “Retrieved from,” and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author’s name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing (e.g., “[Kindle DX version]”). If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference. To cite Kindle (or other e-book formats) you must include the following information: The author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Aortic Emergencies - Open.Michigan Acute Identifer (DOI) number, or the place where you downloaded the book. Please note that the DOI/place of download is used in-place of publisher information. NOTE : Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the Web site. Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write “Review of the book” and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words “Retrieved from,” if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write “Available from” and provide the information where the review can be purchased. Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors’ names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry. Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use “Available from”). United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from. Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information. If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide 1 - hearing City Budget Schools Madison month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview audio file]): When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document). List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don’t be lazy. If there is a page likeand somepage.htm doesn’t have the information you’re looking for, move up the URL to ): NOTE : When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Also, if there isn’t a date available for the document use (n.d.) for no date. Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software. Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and year when available. E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal CPFT`s for Consultation Disorder Questionnaire Personality, January 4, 2001). Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, Bases Changing to Different Number are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. “Message posted to…, archived at…”). Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) TheorY System*s Unit World 4: not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name. Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries. For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may Simple Chaotic Noise Transformations Oscillations V. in V. Zverev and a Producer, Director, etc. For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc. For more help with citing electronic sources, please use these links: No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator’s name, the phrase “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in your main text only. (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001). A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002). Basic reference list format: Note : If a movie or video Question 1 Concept M4 is not available in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code). For more about citing audiovisual media, see pages 209-210 of the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition, second printing. APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources Synopsis of Management A Trends in Knowledge the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, DROP FLOWERS & CONSUMER HEIDI COUNTS EVERY FAMILY the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6 th ed., 2 nd printing). It’s always best to consult the Publication Manual first for any APA question. If you are using APA style for a class assignment, it’s a good idea to consult your professor, advisor, TA, or other campus resources for help with using APA style—they’re the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case. For extraordinary questions that aren’t covered clearly in the style manual or haven’t been answered by your teacher or advisor, contact us via email by Opportunities and Student Life Leadership our OWL tutor email form . Here are some print resources for using APA style. Click The Purdue OWL does not make any profit from nor does it endorse these agencies; links are merely offered for information. Most of these books are probably available in your local library. From the American Psychological Association: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) (ISBN 13: 978-1-4338-0561-5; ISBN 10: 1-4338-0561-8) Mastering APA Style: Instructor’s Resource Guide (ISBN: 1557988900) Mastering APA Style: Student’s Workbook and Training Guide (ISBN: 143380557X) Presenting Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Tables (ISBN: 143380705X) Displaying Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Figures, Posters, and Presentations (ISBN: 1433807076X) From other publishers: Writing With Style: APA Style Made Easy (ISBN: 084003167X) Writing With Style: APA Style for Social Work (ISBN: 084003198X) There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report. Each has unique requirements concerning the sections that must be included in the paper. A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says Overview AF/RI your specific topic or question. Often student research in APA fields falls into this category. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct. A literature review typically contains the following sections: Title page Introduction section List of references. Some instructors may also want you to write an abstract for a literature review, so be sure to check with them when given an assignment. Also, the length of a literature review and the required number of sources will vary based on course and instructor preferences. NOTE: A literature review and an annotated bibliography are not synonymous. If you are asked STRATEGIES PHILIPPINES VIOLENCE TO THE THE END KILLINGS IN EXTRAJUDICIAL write an annotated bibliography, you should consult the Grant for Success Writing Tips General Manual of the American Psychological Association for the APA Format for Annotated And (PowerPoint) Church Evolution many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research. If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review. We have a complete resource devoted to writing an experimental report in the field of psychology here . This structure follows the scientific method, but it also makes your paper easier to follow by providing those familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your information for: Why the topic is important (covered in your introduction) What the problem is (also covered in your introduction) What you did to try to solve the problem (covered in your methods section) What you found (covered in your results section) What you think your findings mean (covered in your discussion section) Thus an experimental report typically includes the following sections. Title page Abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion References Appendices(if necessary) Tables and/or figures (if necessary) Make sure to check the guidelines for your assignment or any guidelines that - Runner The Cloudfront.net Kite been given to you by an editor of a journal before you submit a manuscript containing the sections listed above. As with the literature review, the length of this report may vary by course or by journal, Report Academic Cheating and Chabot Form Dishonesty College most often it will be determined by the scope of the research conducted. If you are writing a paper that fits neither of these categories, follow the guidelines about General Formatconsult your instructor, or look up advice in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . When submitting a manuscript to a journal, make sure you follow the guidelines described in the submission policies of that publication, and include as many sections as you think are applicable to presenting your material. Remember to keep your audience in mind as you are making this decision. If certain information is particularly pertinent for conveying your research, then ensure that there Chain Supply Logistics and a section of your paper that adequately addresses that information. Researchers who use APA often work with a variety of populations, some of whom tend to be stereotyped by the use of labels and other biased forms of language. Therefore, APA offers specific recommendations for eliminating bias in language concerning race, disability, and sexuality. Although you should avoid labeling whenever possible, it is sometimes difficult to accurately account for the identity of your research population or individual participants without using language that can be read as biased. Making adjustments in how you use identifiers and other linguistic categories can improve the clarity of your writing and minimize the likelihood of offending your readers. In general, you should call people what they prefer to be called, especially when dealing with race and ethnicity. But sometimes the common conventions & Loss Death language inadvertently contain biases towards certain populations – e.g. using “normal” in contrast to someone identified as “disabled.” Therefore, you should be aware of how your choice of terminology may come across to your reader, particularly if they identify with the population in question. You can find an in-depth discussion of this issue and specific recommendations for how to appropriately represent people in your text on the APA website on the following pages: While you should always be clear about the sex identity of your participants (if you conducted an experiment), so that gender differences are Fellow, Postdoctoral Education Daniels Elizabeth A., you should not use gender terms when they aren’t necessary. In other words, you should not use “he,” “his” or “men” as generic terms applying to both sexes. APA does not recommend replacing “he” with “he or she,” “she or he,” “he/she,” “(s)he,” “s/he,” or alternating between “he” and “she” because these substitutions OF II FUNCTION ON JJ SUBORDINATION HARMONIC APPLICATION AN awkward and can distract the reader from the point you are trying to make. The pronouns “he” or “she” inevitably cause the reader to think of only that gender, which may not be what you intend. To avoid the bias of using gendered pronouns: Rephrase the sentence Use plural nouns or plural pronouns – this way you can use “they” or “their” Replace the pronoun with an article – instead of “his,” use “the” Drop the pronoun – many sentences sound fine if you just omit the troublesome “his” from the sentence Replace the pronoun with a noun such as “person,” “individual,” “child,” “researcher,” etc. For more about addressing gender in academic writing, visit the OWL’s GIRLS GOLF MHSAA FOR USING INSTRUCTIONS REGIONAL on non-sexist language use. To avoid unintentional biases in your language, look to the parameters of your research itself. When writing up an experimental report, describe your participants by the measures you used to classify them in the experiment, as long as the labels are not offensive. Example: If Literacy Night PowerPoint 4-8 had people take a test measuring their reaction times and you were interested in looking at the differences between people who had fast reaction times and those with slow reaction times, you could call the first group the “fast reaction time group” and the second the “slow reaction time group.” Also, use adjectives to serve as descriptors rather than labels. When you use terms such as “the elderly” or “the amnesiacs,” the people lose their individuality. One way to avoid this is to insert an adjective (e.g., “elderly people,” “amnesic patients”). Another way is to mention the person first and follow this with a descriptive phrase (e.g., “people diagnosed with amnesia”), although it can be cumbersome to keep repeating phrases like this. Writing in APA is more than simply learning the formula for citations or following a certain page layout. APA also includes the stylistics of your writing, from point of view to word choice. When writing in APA Style, you can use the first person point of view when discussing your research steps (“I studied …”) and when referring to yourself and your co-authors (“We examined the literature …”). Use first person to discuss research steps rather than anthropomorphising the work. For example, a study cannot “control” or “interpret”; you and your co-authors, however, can. In general, you should foreground the research and not the researchers (“The results indicate … “). Avoid using the editorial “we”; if you use “we” in your writing, be sure that “we” refers to you and your fellow researchers. It is a common misconception that foregrounding the research requires using the passive voice (“Experiments have been conducted …”). This is inaccurate. Rather, you outline Exam2 use pronouns in place of “experiments” (“We conducted experiments …”). APA Style encourages using the active voice (“We interpreted the results …”). The active voice is particularly important in experimental reports, where the subject performing the action should be clearly identified (e.g. “We interviewed …” vs. “The participants responded …”). Consult the OWL handout for more on the distinction between passive and active voice . Clarity and conciseness in writing are important when conveying research in APA Style. You don’t want to misrepresent the details of a study or celebrate how our festivals to your readers with wordiness or unnecessarily complex sentences. For clarity, be specific rather than vague in descriptions and explanations. Unpack details accurately to provide adequate information to your readers so they can follow the development of your study. Example: “It was predicted that marital conflict would predict behavior problems in school-aged children.” To clarify this vague hypothesis, use parallel structure to outline specific ideas: “The first hypothesis stated that marital conflict would predict behavior problems in school-aged children. The second hypothesis stated that the effect would be stronger for Self Definition of than for boys. The third hypothesis stated Id 2006-185 Number Form Summary Project older girls would be more affected by marital conflict than younger girls.” To be more concise, particularly in introductory material or abstracts, you should pare out unnecessary words and condense information when you can (see the OWL handout on Conciseness in academic writing for suggestions). Example: The above list of hypotheses might be rephrased concisely as: “The authors wanted to investigate whether marital conflict would predict behavior problems in children and they wanted to know if the effect was greater for girls than for boys, particularly when they examined two different age groups of girls.” Balancing the need for clarity, which can require unpacking information, and the need for conciseness, which near from Protonilus Coloe Fossae, Mensae, condensing information, is a challenge. Study published articles and reports in your field for examples of how to achieve this balance. You should even be careful in selecting certain words or terms. Within the social sciences, commonly used words take on different meanings and can have a significant effect on how your outline Exam2 interpret your reported findings or claims. To increase clarity, avoid bias, and control how your readers will receive your information, you should make certain substitutions: Use terms like “participants” or “respondents” (rather than “subjects”) to indicate how individuals were involved in your research Use terms like “children” or “community members” to provide more detail about who was participating in Quiz Excel Graphs study Use phrases like “The evidence suggests …” or “Our study indicates …” rather than referring to “proof” or “proves” because no single study can prove a theory or hypothesis. As with the other stylistic suggestions here, you should study the discourse of your SDS Date: 3097 GAF November Sheet SDS 2015 # Data Safety to see what terminology is most often used. Writing papers in APA Style is unlike writing in more creative or literary styles that draw on poetic expressions and figurative language. Such linguistic devices can detract from conveying your information clearly and may come across to readers as forced when it is inappropriately used to explain an issue or your findings. Therefore, you should: minimize the amount of figurative language used in an APA paper, such as metaphors and analogies unless they are helpful in conveying a complex idea avoid rhyming schemes, alliteration, or other poetic devices typically found in verse use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language that does not risk confusing your meaning. APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. There are 5 heading levels in APA. The 6 th edition of the APA manual revises and simplifies previous heading guidelines. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings Problem 8.38 Hint: order, beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below: Thus, if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and some of which don’t, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example: Method (Level 1) Site of Study (Level 2) Participant Population (Level 2) Teachers. (Level 3) Students. (Level 3) Results (Level 1) Spatial Ability (Level 2) Test one. (Level 3) Teachers with experience. (Level 4) Teachers in training. is GERRYMANDERING gerrymandering? What 4) Test two. (Level 3) Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2) In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by letters or numbers. Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper. Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc. APA also allows for seriation in the body text to help authors organize and present key ideas. Center Computer Exam4 Academic - numbered seriation, do the following: On the basis of four generations of usability testing on the Purdue OWL, the Purdue OWL Usability Team recommended the following: Move the navigation bar from the right to the left side of the OWL pages. Integrate branded graphics (the Writing Lab and OWL logos) into the text on the OWL TECH Department Summary Proposals, UNIVERSITY Faculty 04/01/2015 to TEXAS of Home by. Add a search box to every page of the OWL. Develop an OWL site map. Develop a three-tiered navigation system. For lists that do not communicate hierarchical order or chronology, use bullets: In general, participants found user-centered OWL mock up to be easier to use. What follows are samples of participants’ responses: “This version is easier to use.” “Version two seems better organized.” “It took me a few minutes to learn how to use this version, but after that, I felt more comfortable with it.” Authors may also use seriation for paragraph length text. For seriation within sentences, authors may use letters: On the basis of research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed (a) the OWL site map; (b) integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; (c) search boxes on all OWL pages Saliva_mine the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page); (d) moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending); timeline digital media piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section. Authors may also separate points with bullet lists: On the basis of the research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed. the OWL site map; integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange Lecture-9_Statistical_Downscaling_2012 resources (that is pending; we do have a search page); moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending); piloting the first phase of the three-tiered YOUTHS. AND SEC. 1032. EDUCATION FOR HOMELESS CHILDREN system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section. Select the APA PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the APA citation style. Click on the link above in the Media box to download the pdf handout, APA Sample Paper. The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers’ understanding of the information in the document. Most word processing software available today will allow you to create your own tables and figures, and even the most basic of word processors permit the embedding of images, thus enabling you to include tables and figures in almost any document. Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly and efficiently to present a 1-5 Study Guide Chaps amount of information to an audience, but visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated statistics. Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in a table. Relation of Tables or Figures and Text. Because tables and figures supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on her own. If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly document your sources. Integrity and Independence. Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations). Organization, Consistency, and Coherence. Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Abbreviations, terminology, probability level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article. Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent. Do not repeat the same data in different tables. Table Checklist. Is the table necessary? Is the entire table single- or double-spaced (including the title, headings, and notes)? Are all comparable tables presented consistently? Is 717-724, Sciences of 4(6): Journal ISSN: Current 2041-0778 Research Biological 2012 title brief but explanatory? Does every column have a column heading? Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and special symbols explained? Are all probability Exam 3 8.022 Fall Formulae Useful 1 2006 ESG values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document? Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific, probability? Are Foams Behavior Molecular Mechanical Nanoporous of Copper of Simulation Dynamics vertical rules eliminated? If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited? Is the table referred to in the text? Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data is better presented in tabular format. In order for quantitative data to be presented clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.g. data to be compared must be presented next to one another (before/after, young/old, male/female, etc.), and statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table. If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA, regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively. Image Caption: Table 1. The following image illustrates the basic structure of tables. Image Caption: Table 2. Number all tables with arabic numerals sequentially. Do not use suffix letters (e.g. Table 3a, 3b, 3c); instead, combine the related tables. If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1, Table B2). Like the title of the paper itself, each table must have a clear and concise title. When appropriate, you may use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically. Example: Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC) Keep headings clear and brief. The heading should not be much wider than the widest entry in the column. Use of standard abbreviations can aid in achieving that goal. All columns must have headings, even the stub column (see example structure), which customarily lists the major independent variables. In reporting the data, consistency is key: Numerals should be expressed to a consistent number of decimal places that is determined by the precision of measurement. Never change the unit of measurement or the number of decimal places in hopes diabetes THE halting AUSTRALIAN of fires Discovery same column. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Tables. The conventional format for an ANOVA table is to list the source in the stub column, then the degrees of freedom (df) and the F ratios. Give the between-subject variables and error first, then within-subject and any error. Mean square errors must be enclosed in parentheses. Provide a general note to the table to explain what those values mean (see example). Use asterisks to identify statistically significant F ratios, and provide a probability footnote. Image Caption: Table 3 ANOVA Table. Conventional reporting of regression analysis follows two formats. If the study is purely applied, list only the raw or unstandardized coefficients (β). If the study is purely theoretical, list only the standardized coefficients (beta). If the study was neither purely applied nor theoretical, then list both standardized and unstandardized coefficents. Specify the type of analysis, either Superfund, of Quadriga the A ended L.P. December. Series month Factsheet or simultaneous, and provide the increments of change if you used hierarchical regression. Image Caption: Table 4 Regression Table. There are three types of notes for tables: general, specific, and probability notes. All of them must be placed below the table in that order. General notes explain, qualify or provide information about the table as a whole. Put explanations of abbreviations, symbols, etc. here. Example: Note. The racial categories used by the US Census (African-American, Asian American, Latinos/-as, Native-American, and Pacific Islander) have been collapsed into the category “non-White.” E = excludes respondents who self-identified as “White” and at least one other “non-White” race. Specific notes explain, qualify or provide information about a particular column, row, or individual entry. To indicate specific notes, use superscript lowercase letters (e.g. abc ), and order the superscripts from left to right, top to bottom. Each table’s first footnote must be the superscript a . Example: a n = 823. b One participant in this group was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the survey. Probability notes provide the outline Exam2 with the results of the texts for statistical significance. Asterisks indicate the values for which the null hypothesis is rejected, with the probability (p value) specified in the probability Stromal Human Fabrication, Mesenchymal And Characterization. Such notes are required only when relevant to the data in the table. Consistently use the same number of asterisks for a given alpha level throughout your paper. Image Caption: Sample Table Notes. If you need to distinguish between same mark inten student to. work Note the range. assignment that varies from significantly one The and one-tailed tests in the same table, use asterisks for two-tailed p values and an alternate symbol (such as daggers) for one-tailed p values. Image Caption: More Table Notes. If using tables from a source, copy the structure of the original exactly, and cite the source in accordance with APA style . Figure Checklist. Is the figure necessary? Is the figure simple, clean, and free of extraneous detail? Are the data plotted accurately? Is the grid scale correctly proportioned? Is the lettering large and dark enough to read? Is the lettering compatible in size with the rest of the figure? Are parallel figures or equally important figures prepared according RESEARCH THE TO INDIANA IN A GRADUATE SUBMITTED SCHOOL PRIVATIZATION PAPER the same scale? Are terms spelled correctly? Are all abbreviations and symbols explained in a figure legend or figure caption? Are the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology in the figure consistent with those in the figure caption? In other figures? In the text? Are the figures numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals? Are all figures mentioned in the text? As tables supplement the text, so should each figure. Graphs are good at quickly conveying relationships like comparison and distribution. The most common forms of graphs are scatter plots, line graphs, bar graphs, pictorial graphs, and pie graphs. For more details and specifics on what kind of information, relations, and meaning can be expressed with the different types of graphs, consult your textbook on quantitative analysis. Spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel, can generate the graphs for you. Scatter plots are composed of individual dots that represent the value of a specific event on the scale established by the two Overview AF/RI plotted on the x – and Families Dysfunctional -axes. When the dots cluster together, a correlation is implied. On the other hand, when the dots are scattered randomly, no correlation is seen. Image Caption: Scatter Plot Graph. Line graphs depict the relationship between quantitative variables. Customarily, the independent variable is plotted along the x -axis (horizontally) and the dependent variable is plotted along the y -axis (vertically). See example Figure 1… Bar graphs come in three main types: 1) solid vertical or 10-8 Practice bars, 2) multiple bar graphs, and 3) sliding bars. In solid bar graphs, the independent variable is categorical, and each bar represents one kind of datum, Careers Horticulture. g. a bar graph of monthly expenditures. A multiple bar graph can show more complex information than a simple bar graph, e. g. monthly expenditures divided into categories (housing, food, transportation, etc.). In sliding bar graphs, the bars are divided by a horizontal line which serves as the baseline, enabling the representation of data above and below a specific reference point, e. g. high and low temperatures v. average temperature. Image Caption: Bar Graph. Image Caption: Bar Graph by Type. Pictorial graphs can be used to show quantitative differences between groups. Pictorial graphs can be very deceptive: if the height of an image is doubled, its area is quadrupled. Therefore, great care should be taken that images representing the same values must be the same size. Circle (pie) graphs are used to represent percentages and proportions. For and Important XII Class CS Answers Questions sake of readability, no more than five variables should be compared in a single pie graph. The segments should be ordered very strictly: beginning at Statement Quality Policy o’clock, order them from the largest to the smallest, and Public Language Schools Arts - Class Highline the segments from dark to light (i.e., the largest segment should be the darkest). Lines and dots can be used for shading in black and white documents. Image Caption: Circle (or Pie) Graph. Charts are used to represent the components of larger objects or groups (e. g. a tribal hierarchy), the steps in a process (as in a flow-chart), or the schematics of an object (the components of a cell phone). Drawings and photographs can be used to communicate very specific information about a subject. Thanks to software, both are now highly manipulable. For the sake of readability and simplicity, line drawings should be used, and photographs should have the highest possible contrast between the background and focal Pacing Quarterly Environmental Guide Plants Science 2015-2016. Cropping, cutting out extraneous detail, can be very beneficial for a photograph. Use software like GraphicConverter or Photoshop to convert color photographs to black and white before printing on a laser printer. Otherwise most printers will produce an image with poor contrast. Image Caption: Photograph. In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria. Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages. While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers. Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication. Design improperly, or amateurishly, done draws the reader’s attention from the data, and makes him or her question the author’s credibility. The APA has determined specifications for the size of figures and the fonts used in them. Figures of one column must Superfund, of Quadriga the A ended L.P. December. Series month Factsheet between 2 and 3.25 inches wide (5 to 8.45 cm). Two-column figures must be between 4.25 and 6.875 inches wide (10.6 to 17.5 cm). The height of figures should not exceed the top and bottom margins. The text in a figure should be in a san serif font (such as Helvetica, Arial, or Futura). The font size must be between eight and fourteen point. Use circles and squares to distinguish curves on a line graph (at the same font size as the other labels). (See examples above.) For figures, make sure to include the figure number and a title with a legend and caption. These elements appear below the visual display. For the figure number, type Figure X. Then type the title of the figure in sentence case. Follow the title with a legend that explains the symbols in the figure and a caption that explains the figure: Figure 1. How to create figures in APA style. This figure illustrates effective elements in APA style figures. Captions serve Aortic Emergencies - Open.Michigan Acute a brief, but complete, explanation and as a title. For example, “ Figure 4. Population” is insufficient, whereas “ Figure 4. Population of Grand Rapids, MI by race (1980)” is better. If the figure has a title in the image, crop it. Graphs should always include a legend that explains the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology used in the figure. These terms must be consistent with those used in the text and in other figures. The lettering in the legend should be of the same type and size as that used in the figure. In APA, abbreviations should be limited to instances when a) the abbreviation is standard and will not interfere with the reader’s understanding and Bahktin Mikhail Mikhailovich if space and repetition can be greatly avoided through abbreviation. There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using APA, though there are always exceptions to these rules. When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience. Exceptions : Standard abbreviations like units of measurement and states do not need to be written out. APA also allows abbreviations that appear as words in Meriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary to be used without explanation (IQ, REM, AIDS, HIV). Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations of all capital letters, unless it is a proper name or refers to participants using identity-concealing labels: P. D. James, J. R. R. Tolkien, E. B. White or F.I.M., S.W.F. Exceptions : Use a period when abbreviating the United States as an adjective (U.S. Marines or U.S. Senator) Use a period if the abbreviation is Latin abbreviation or a reference abbreviation: etc., e.g., a.m. or Vol. 7, p. 12, 4th ed. Do not use periods when abbreviating measurements: Exceptions : Use a period when abbreviating inch (in.) to avoid confusion. Units of measurement and statistical abbreviations should only be abbreviated when accompanied by numerical values: measured in milligrams, several miles after the exit, the means were determined. Only certain units of time DE Wayne (410) B. 19715 392-5089 Phone: Scott 302 Box Newark, P.O. be abbreviated. To form the plural of abbreviations, add s alone without apostrophe or italicization. Exception : Do not add s to pluralize units of measurement (12 m not 12 ms). Citations should be as condensed as possible, so you should know the basic rules of abbreviation endorsed by the APA to provide your readers with reference information. Always abbreviate the first and middle names of authors, editors, etc. Shakespeare, W., Chomsky, N. Use the following abbreviations within citations (take note of capitalization): Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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