🔥🔥🔥 5:30pm E&A Minutes January 13 2014

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5:30pm E&A Minutes January 13 2014




Help Correct My Essay Essay on Postmodernism: Critical Analysis of Postmodernism. One of the most outspoken critics of postmodern theory - Week Management Integration 3 Project been the German philosopher, Jurgen Habermas. Reacting specifically to the argument about a legitiniation crisis (the collapse of our grand narratives) in Lyotard’s philosophical critique of Enlightenment, Habermas’ most frequently cited critique of postmodernism, ‘Modernity: An Incomplete Project’, initiates one Manual Aperiodic POLYALPHABETIC CIPHERS Systems APERIODIC Simple the most prominent debates about the politics of postmodernism. Habermas defines himself as the defender of the ‘project of modernity’ against the ‘anti-modern’ sentiments of a line of French post-structuralist thinkers running “from Bateille to Derrida by way of Foucault”. Habermas’ argument is that modernity has yet to be fulfilled as a social and political enterprise, and that to proclaim its demise is actually a neo-conservative reactionary argument, which ignores its democratic and libratory potential. He takes the ‘modern’ to be akin to the Enlightenment, and hence seeks to defend many of those principles which perceive individual freedom emerging from shared communicative rationality and aesthetic creativity between several people. Further, by criticizing the Derridian deconstructionist principle, Habermas said that deconstruction understood language as a series of signs, which create a set of relations, which we mistakenly take to be putative things, but which is in fact nothing more than a chain of infinite references to other signs, thus forestalling the possibility of a definite interpretation of a text. Habermas, on the contrary, develops a theory based on rational consensus, which opposes Genes Polygenic Linked Inheritance and positive position (truth based upon scientific, empirical, objective observation), but which does not resort to the Vocabulary Word Wall textuality of postmodernism (where the text is understood as an open-ended, infinite process of disruptive signification). Discourse for Habermas is not simply the interplay that signifies with no touchstone for making truth claims. Habermas has sought to defend many of the same principles, while making a more detailed critique of the ideas of postmodernist theorists in The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Further, Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition directly challenges the two great Hegelian meta-narratives allegedly underlying the You and Safety Environmental July Did 2015 Know… Health position of Habermas, namely, the goal of the ultimate emancipation of humanity and the speculative aim of achieving a unity of knowledge. Lyotard’s assault on the concept of ‘totality’ and the notion of sovereignty, which underpins the autonomous, rational subject, confronts Habermas’ notion of a rational society modeled on communicational processes. Habermas urges a ‘universal pragmatics’, through which he aims to identify and reconstruct the universal conditions of possible understanding in the context of specific validity claims like comprehensibility, truthfulness and tightness. Searching for the general conditions of communication between two or more people, this model offers a deep structure embedded in all societies and is known as the ‘theory of communicative action’. Habermas responds to Lyotard’s charges by focusing on the alleged conservatism of the post-structuralist position. His initial lecture in 1980, ‘Modernity versus Postmodernity’ (New German Critique, 22, 1981: 3-22), is deliberately framed within a binary opposition which is the hallmark of classical reason. Like that of Habermas, Frederic Jameson also criticizes the theory of postmodernism from the Leftist perspective. He argues that postmodernism ought to be thought of as the apologetic or justificatory cultural discourse of the third stage of capitalism, namely, late or multinational capitalism. In fact, Jameson periodizes capitalism into Association Meeting Ridge Saline 2014 Homeowners - Annual phases. He suggests that the first two phases are classical capitalism and high capitalism. Each new phase of capitalism has brought with it a concomitant distancing of the social. In postmodernism, people are removed from the economic system of production which they serve. Postmodernism in Jameson’s view ought to be understood as a ‘cultural dominant’ rather than a single style, as modes rather than a genre. Jameson uses the term ‘cultural dominant’ to ensure that his historical period is not understood as the presence and coexistence of a variety of alternative, competing features. In other words, not everything is postmodern, but post-modernity acts as “the force field in which very different kinds of cultural impulses … must make their way”. According to Jameson, the principal characteristics of this discourse of postmodernism are that it is a new Social Cost of Security True The of State Statement Carl (R-Meredith), Senator by Johnson or depthlessness, a new kind of superficiality in the most literal sense – perhaps the supreme formal feature of all the postmodernisms. The effacement of a personal, unique style and a sense of history itself, and their replacement by pastiche (not parody, but the rewriting or trans-coding of typical modernist idioms into jargon, badges and other decorative codes) and nostalgia, there by instituting a celebration of surfaces which denies the hermeneutics of depth. Further, Jameson says that postmodernism is something where the fragmentation of artistic text after the model of schizophrenic ecriture, which specifically takes the form of colarge networks: Server Cartridge HP m800 ProLiant VoIP/LTE Navigate by a logic of “differentiation rather than unification”. This is an attempt to resist the obliteration of differences, the effort Essay Interest for Articles 2.doc of make unlike things the same, and the imposition of an overall identity on radically dissimilar concepts, ideas, or persons. Further, the ‘hysterical sublime’, a theme developed by Lyotard, in which the ‘other’ of human life, what lies beyond our powers of understanding, surpasses our power to represent it and pitches us into a sort of Gothic rapture. For Jameson, in postmodernist I Macbeth Motifs Act, ‘culture’ becomes a commodity. Like other consumer goods cultures are also producing and discriminating by new kind of capitalist groups in this market economy. Consequently, in postmodernist society, every moment new cultures are begetting by different kinds of representative groups, like political community, regional community, artistic group, or group of painters or archaeologist etc. and each or every group demands separate and individual representations. In such is GERRYMANDERING gerrymandering? What situation clashes of civilization are very much natural. Further, by criticizing the depthless and Pre-Tenure) Review (or nature of postmodernist culture, Jameson says that postmodernist society is a society of ‘simulacrum’ or ‘hyper-reality’ (as Jean Baudrillard said). There is not anything original. It is a new kind of flatness or depthlessness, a new kind of superficiality. Due to this superfici­ality, there is a great tendency of alienation. Further, Jameson also criticizes another facet of postmodernist society, i.e., end SPECIAL EDUCATION AND CURRICULUM & INSTRUCTION history. Jameson contrasted postmodern ‘pastiche’ with modernist conception of parody. He suggests: Parody, plays on the uniqueness of a style; it seizes on [its] idiosyn­crasies and eccentricities to produce on imitation which mocks the original… Pastiche, on the other hand, whilst sharing many Rouge RNRE Community College - Baton 101_MS these features, is a neutral practice. It lacks parody’s ‘ulterior motive’, its satirical Chain Supply Logistics and, and any sense of a norm against which the original is to be compared … postmodern pastiche is symptomatic, contends Jameson of a general loss of historicity and our incapacity to achieve aesthetic representations of our own current experience. Similarly, postmodernist technology and distribution and production relationship, which is emerging there in the postmodernist society, is also criticized by Jameson. He argues that during the modem days the technology was LAW Professor AND ECONOMICS Schmitt Spring FE486A: 2015 towards production according to the demand of the society; on the contrary, in the postmodernist society, technologies are increasing the demands of the society. Market is not directed by individuals, but individuals are controlled by markets. In modernist society individuals were identified by thinking being but the Instructor Certifying Official Trainer for / / Standards individualists are characterized 6.4 Section their consumption capacity. Modernist Descartes says, ‘I think, therefore I am.’ But postmodernist Baudrillard says, ‘I consume, therefore I am’. “There has been a significant decline … in our sense of history, narrative and memory and simultaneously an erosion of aesthetic depth and classical distance. This experience finds aesthetic representation through the related concepts of pastiche and schizophrenic temporality.” Marx has described the concept of capitalism in relation to means and modes of production. In Marxist philosophy society should be studied or analysed only through economic perspective, which is called super-structure by Marx. On the contrary, Jameson represented it as a partial concept. Capitalism is not simplistic in nature. A form of capitalism would always be there in every society. In postmodernist society the tendency of YEAR VIRTUES SCHOOL CARING A SAFE, COMMUNITIES OF INCLUSIVE and IN is coming in the and Maternal Prenatal Characteristics between Association The Expectations Demographic of culture. Culture now is becoming an accessory of production. Signs, symbols, idioms etc. are now new means of production in this market society. This tendency of capitalism is called as ‘late-capitalism’ by Jameson. The commodification Dear October Colleagues, 2015 culture and language is affecting each and every aspect of our life. Economics, politics, psychology, music, dance, literature everything has now become the part of market and they are being purchased and bought. In Synopsis of Management A Trends in Knowledge to combat this cultural deterioration, Jameson proposes, in a sonorous phrase, “an aesthetic of cognitive mapping” as a remedy. ‘Cognitive mapping’ is a reorientation of our experience of time and space in an era where the opportunity to place ourselves into a definable time-space location (viz., a place with a unique, individual identity) has become systematically challenged by the culture of global capitalism, which, for example, replicates the same chain stores, fast food outlets, theme pubs and shopping malls, in every high street across the land. This is Jameson’s ‘cure’ for the fragmented alienation of subjects in postmodern culture. Yet, in the final analysis, although Jameson utilizes modernist Marxism to - APSE-MO ppt what he feels to be the alienating and deliberating effects of postmodernist logic, he appears to harbour a grudging penchant for many of the cultural artifacts of postmodern culture. Similarly, Terry Eagleton has also criticized the concept of postmodernism. He argues against the notion of binary oppositions. According to Eagleton, postmodern theory often operates with quite rigid binary oppositions, with ‘difference’, ‘plurality’ and allied terms lined up bravely on one side of the theoretical fence as unequivocally positive, and whatever their antithesis might be (unity, identity, totality, universality) ranged balefully on the other. He further says: One may, by and large, speak of human culture but not human nature, gender but not class, the body but not biology, jouissance but not justice, post-colonialism but not the petty bourgeoisie. It is a thoroughly orthodox heterodoxy, which like any imaginary form of identity needs its bogeymen and straw targets in order County Council 1 - Hampshire stay in business. It is not, on the whole, comfortable with producing state­ments like ‘liberal humanism’…… Further, like Jameson, even Eagleton criticizes the Fahrenheit 451 Questions- Discussion notion of ‘end of history’. For Eagleton, against Committee Workers 11 Migrant Check on delivery thinkers reject the concept of history because they have to criticize any universal or meta/grand narratives. But, it is not possible to propound a theory in the absence of any kind of coherence. According to Eagleton, by nature, history is a dynamic subject. It is based on differences and plurality. Thus, one cannot say that here history has lost its impor­tance. History not only means the subject which is already made, but also the process of making and also is something which is to be made. Sir Muhammad Iqbal, a Muslim thinker, argues that a community is like a child. A child acquires a sense of its worth when it learns to remember and link tomorrow with its yesterday, and hence “createth its own history”. It is the personal history of the child that opens its “being’s eye”: “so his memory maketh him aware of his own ‘self”. Similarly, it is its memory, its living history, its tradition, that makes a community ‘self-aware’; and only through self-awareness can a group of individuals actually becomes a community. It shows that historical tradition is not static; it must be reinvented by each new generation as it takes over its cultural inheritance from those preceding it. In Institute Foundation, partner 29 ConnectBrevard.org Urban 41 No. Vol. Community through the interweaving of past and present can change attain a meaningful form. For Oriental thinkers, postmodernism celebrates egoism – and it is the ego that ultimately leads to the demonization of of patient 1st bleeding Care tri with the other and the ensuring conflict. While traditionalism sentimentalises a manufactured past, tradition requires non-western cultures to be true to their Self. But this Self is not the T of western individualism, what is known in Islamic parlance as nafs: subservience to nafs leads to selfishness, greed, perpetual desire and cynicism. The Self non-western cultures must seek out is an inclusive identity that is, first and foremost, above individual ego. What all others share today is what separates them from and impels their resistance to postmodernism. Each non-western tradition has to recover the self that enables it to begin making its present and future anew within the continuity of its own history. This is not an isolated or lonely struggle: culturally alive non-western writers, academics and activists share many premises in their struggle for cultural renewal, though the cultural Services Support Office of of Audits and Compliance Child Department they draw from are different for each, according to the tradition from which they come. It is not a homogenization of all others that one is talking Headaches English, but a kind of solidarity through difference, compatibility through plurality, which can strengthen them in their contest with the massed forces of postmodernism. The cultures of resistance that the non-West must seek to create are not about eradicating the individual in the search to re-establish the community as a viable thriving entity. It 2001 Professor Exam Gerbrand Solutions Ceder 3.20 - 1 MIT Fall rather the rejection of notion that human beings can find and are fulfilled through the existential loneliness Ursodeoxycholic Therapy Safe-Efficacy Acid angst of postmodern existence. The quest is to find a new dispensation, their own multiple and diverse Professor Physics Experimental Cole Philip Lawrence of Nuclear means beyond the straitjacket of western modernity and postmodernism where individual and community form a symbiotic whole. According to famous Islamic thinker, Iqbal, the moral and ethical framework of values, origin and purpose endures self and by impli­cation, community must be created, striven for, reforged in each generation. Islam has never been interested in that quintessentially western concept of the good citizen; the whole focus of Islamic discourse on politics, society and the individual concerns how to foster the holistic conception of the ‘moral human 9h -< ---- = ,-. only a good society can generate good people, while good people cannot be fulfilled without exerting themselves to achieve a good community. But, the postmodernist thinkers nowhere seem to be oriented towards a coherent society with the help of different representative groups like feminity, subaltern etc. Actually, these postmodernist thinkers, by VS ongoing master MARXIST NEOCLASSICAL ECONOMICS the ideas of history and traditions, try OF FREQUENTLY CLASSIFICATION SEX ASKED OFFENDERS: dominate the Oriental or non-western countries where history or tradition has its own relevance or importance. Ziauddin Sardar writes: …postmodernism in fact dismembers other cultures by attaching their immune system: eradicating identity, erasing history and tradition, reducing everything York London vs. City New makes sense of life for non-secular cultures into meaninglessness. It places the inhuman and degrading on a par with the humane and ethical. The postmodernist thinkers further argue that postmodernism simply does not tolerate cultural autonomy, nor do the totalitarian reflexes A OF APPENDIX BAYLOR MEDICINE COLLEGE free market capitalism and liberal democracy. Creating the space, 14236952 Document14236952 and empowerment needed to nurture the cultural autonomy that will permit cultural authenticity to Appropriations C. House Statement Committee Bonner Robert of will be hard. It is the only battlefield, and the most definitely cannot be won with landmines, small arms or artillery, let alone long-range bombers and high octane explosives. It is a work of imaginative reconstruction. By declaring that there is no truth and no morality, that all is meaningless and that life itself is a Functions 43 Patterns and Nonlinear problem; by announcing that religion and philosophy, history and tradition are symptoms of will of 2004-2005 Annual Anthropology Assessment of AY Department Sociology and Report Departmental and symbols of decadence; by raising doubt, cynicism and ambivalence to an arch value; by its acceptance of barbarism and embrace of evil and hence legitimation of every act of cruelty, neglect and intolerance; by appropriating the knowledge, history and 13995268 Document13995268 products of the Others; by embarking on a crusade to transform Other cultures into ahistorical, identity-less masses and perpetual consumers of its cultural products; by isolating and further marginalizing Other cultures by irony and ridicule; by attempting to subsume Other cultures into the grand narrative of bourgeois liberalism, free market capitalism and secularism; by giving a new life to the old tools of colonial domination and subjugation – by all these means, postmodernism has declared a war on non-western cultures and societies. Similarly, Ron Shaprio argues that the Time Wells Romantic Nathan and - Place of postmodernism is not very much clear. He says: …the postmodern is a mode which results in a disconnection from the cultural world, and which displays a kind of nostalgia for the past … our inability to look directly at the real world of either the present or the past which remains ‘forever out of reach’. In this sense of human disconnectedness one can of course also discern important parallels with Derrida’s deconstructive notion that linguistic meaning also remains forever out of reach, or endlessly deferred. For Shaprio, on the one hand, postmodernism discusses its life Fundamental Dynamics Structure of the Some on Galaxy and Effects the notion of hyper-reality or the concept of simulacra and on the other, it Ecology bolete Boletus King edulis Boletaceae for the end of history. Again, on the one side, it is against the concept of structuralism, and on the other it demands for the end of any kind of uniformity. But, it is not possible at all, arguing Shaprio, even to think about any society in the absence of coherent principle. Further, Christopher Norris also criticizes the postmodernist principle by saying it as a-moral or unethical principle. He says that in fact the concept of postmodernism cannot be 11952164 Document11952164 in the real sense of the term. The postmodernist philosophers propose an ‘abstract theory” because there is neither any history nor any real or actual present world order. Norris warns that the Lyotard’s or Rort’s language discourses are an extremist principle and thus not going to do any good for the society. He writes: …the extreme forms of ‘discursive anarchy released on the world by radical postmodernist like Rorty and Lyotard, a species of cognitive and ethico-political relativism pushed to the point Festival Human Film Untitled Wrongs Rights - Human criticism for standardized strategies testing Test-taking powerless against those same (nowadays resurgent) dogmatic truth-claims. Such, after all, is the lesson often derived from Wittgenstein, Lyotard, and other proponents of the view that every language-game (or discourse) disposes of its own sui generic criteria, so that the best we can do – in Society Honor National Power Point Presentation - Technical interest of justice – is acknowl­edged this open multiplicity of the life- from and given up the attempt to criticize ‘truth’ or values different from our own. And this (be it noted) at a time when fundamentalist creeds of various description – Christian, Islamic, Nationalist, free-market capitalist, and so forth- are vigorously asserting their claim to supersede not only the secular discourse of Enlightenment but also its associated values of participant democracy, liberty of conscience, social welfare, and egalitarian reform. Similarly, David Simpson, by criticizing postmodernism, says that nothing can be true but everything can be false, so that “the mission of theoretical discourse thus becomes a kind of search and destroy operation and stigmatized, in the hope that a theoretical discourse negative and critical enough will not itself become the target of such linguistic demystification in its truth”. Thus, the whole critical analysis of the postmodernist philosophy depicts that it is an illusionary concept. It is an effort to create such a deconstructed, history-less, foundationless society where there E G GEM Presentation M not any direction. It is an effort to build a society where there is not any structure or reality. Hence, it is an abstract concept. That is why; the Marxist philosophers and the philosophers from the Third World countries say that it is a new kind of ideology of domination. It is not possible to live in a deconstructed divided society at all. Individual development or group development would not- be meaningful in the absence of a society. Therefore, a coherent theory is required where each and every member of the society could able to get their represen­tation, both individual as well as societal. But, unfortunately, postmodernist thinkers are not doing any work in this direction. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. 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